The concept of the Triple Helix Model of university-industry-government relationships was introduced by Etzkowitz (1993 and Etzkowitz (1995) in the 1990s. This initiative of Triple Helix model follows the elements of the research work done by (Lowe, 1982).
Their study includes various factors and background issues seeking to identify the central problems for university, faculty, administrator, and students and also found the question about how the industry will contribute to it to fill the gap between university, industry, and academia.
The Triple Helix model is an excellent driver that provides a platform for innovation and economic development for Pakistan by the means of hybridization of elements from university, industry, and government to generate new institutional and social formats for the production, transfer, and application of knowledge.
This vision encompasses not only the creative destruction that appears as a natural innovation dynamics but also the creative renewal that arises within each of the three institutional spheres of university, industry, and government, as well as at their intersections (Schumpeter, 1942).
Pakistan is a developing country and now currently in the development stage. The development in current era can only be met by making the strategies at national level for Government, academia, industry.
Role of Government in Triple Helix Model
1. Forming of Entrepreneurial Universities
Being one leg of triple helix model, GOVT of Pakistan’s role is very crucial and significant for the successful implementation of the model. In this regard GOVT role for establishing the entrepreneurial universities is necessary. The entrepreneurial university is such a “heavy” concept implicating a whole set of tacit meanings as well as cultures, values and explicit success measures, that putting together “university” and “entrepreneurial activities for the benefit of the society.
2. Proactive and Accessible Bureaucracy
There are several characteristics of the Pakistan’s bureaucracy that can influence on the triple helix model in Pakistan. There are some persistent weaknesses in those agencies that impact specifically on Pakistani industry and technology capabilities, corresponding weak interactions with the private sectors and poorly designed financial incentives for promoting the research culture in Pakistan.
3. Development of Science Parks
Science parks and R&D institutions play a major role for triple helix model in Pakistan. The trend of making science parks is necessary for Pakistani GOVT. These R&D institutions provide support for linkages between GOVT, academia, and industry. In Pakistan Institute of Research Promotion (IRP) is a very dynamic agency for promotion of innovation and technology development. IRP team has developed the capacity to work with partners and bring stakeholders on focused agenda of innovation. IRP has created an environment where technology work is being exhibited, promoted and commercialized. Pakistan’s GOVT needs to develop R&D institutional and science parks for promoting the research culture in Pakistan for driving the triple helix model.
4. Interest and Activeness of Political Leadership
An explanation for the preceding problems is incomplete without explicit attention to the government’s understanding of the private sector’s needs and the political will to promote related institutions. It has recognized that the nature of new competitive pressures and working with the private sector is based on the likes and dislikes of the one’s opinion.
Role of Academia in Triple Helix Model
5. Knowledge Spillovers
The knowledge spill-overs among university, industry, and GOVT is considered as one of the mechanisms for improving the economic performance of Pakistan. There is a need for knowledge sharing among universities and industries about mechanisms of triple helix model. The researchers in academia have to share their views with industry for the collaboration of research projects. Researchers from universities must arrange industry visits and identify the industrial problems which need to be addressed with the help of scientists.
6. Governance in the Universities
Pakistani universities must be engaged in promoting the research culture by way of organizing the workshops, seminars, training for researchers and industry. The strong governance with universities may lead to the development of triple helix model.
7. Sandwich Courses by Academia
Sandwich course is a modern term for academia sector. Sandwich courses are courses offered by some universities where some of your studies take place working in industry or studying abroad. These types of courses must be offered to the final year students for gaining their practical exposure to the industry. There are a lot of benefits attached to these types, of course, i.e. most industry work placements will pay a salary and you might get a grant if you study abroad. The annual tuition fee will probably be lower for that year as well. But sandwich courses are about more than just the money. Students who work in the industry will develop real practical skills which will help when applying for future jobs. Studying abroad means you really experience a different country and culture firsthand, making you more independent and giving plenty of new friends and memories to go with your qualification at the end of the course.
8. Incentives for Research Students and Supervisors
Incentives (financial or non-financial) are always considered as a powerful tool for promoting the research activities within academia sector. Incentives, or “compensation,” include anything offered to participants, monetary or otherwise, to encourage participation in research. Academic researchers and students must be offered some reasonable incentives for doing their research projects because these types of activities can help for the implementation of triple helix model in Pakistan.
9. Establishment of Linkages and Networks
There must be a need for establishing the linkages with other R&D institutions, universities and industries and GOV. Linkages among institutions and industry provide a platform for establishing the triple helix model and also work as driving force.
Role of Industry in Triple Helix Model
10. Incentives for Industry for Academic Liaison
Industries are always considered as seeking to enhance business competitiveness, will partner with universities for a variety of reasons, including intellectual property acquisition, access to potential new hires, and access to cutting-edge ideas and expertise. Experience indicates, however, that these outcomes are often attenuated for small firms, because of a variety of mismatches with university practices and policies.
11. Incentives for Technology Led Production
Generally speaking, industries prime concerns involves increasing the competitive advantages, expanding the market position and maximizing the profits etc. This is true fact but in this global innovative era, universities concerns move towards with the collaborative work with universities. For example companies with shrinking R&D capacities may have a prime need to leverage their existing assets through contract research arrangements with universities.
The GOVT of Pakistan in this regard provides a platform for the promotion of technology and industry research i.e. technology development fund offered by the HEC for the development of technology with industry liaison. These types of opportunities are the driving forces for the triple helix model in Pakistan.
12. Training and Education of Industry
There must be a need for the know-how of triple helix model for industries working in Pakistan. Training is the powerful tool for the industry to develop this model in Pakistan. The training, seminars, and workshops must be arranged with the collaboration of GOVT and academic sector for understanding the need of triple helix model. These types of activities will bring the industry and society problems in a market where potential researchers overview the problems of finding their solutions.
The Triple Helix model provides us an empirical platform because the contributions from the model provide different theoretical and practical perspectives of the working together which can lead towards the economic development of Pakistan. In Pakistan, the need for understanding the knowledge of triple helix model is necessary because this is a major issue.
In conclusion, the GOVT of Pakistan particularly needs to take an overview of the educational needs of the country. It is not sufficient only to look at primary schooling; nor is it appropriate to expect universities to engage with business without support and motivation.
The GOVT of Pakistan should engage actively with HEIs as part of an open, inclusive dialogue, recognizing both the significant role that the universities must play in national development and the complex attitudes and assumptions that exist within the universities. The universities of Pakistan have much to contribute to the successful development of triple helix model in the country.
Note: The paper is based a focus group meeting with around 30 people from academia, industry and government on how to practice triple helix model in Pakistan. The meeting was moderated by the authors in University of Management and Technology Lahore
· Rahmat Ullah, Manager ORIC, University of Management and Technology, Chief Coordinator Institute of Research Promotion and General Secretary South Asia Triple Helix Association- Email: firstname.lastname@example.org , Ph.: +92-321-4917181
· Dr. Emanuela Todeva, is a Professor in International Business Strategy and Innovation at St Mary’s University, UK. She is also a member of the executive committee and Chair of the Scientific Committee of the Triple Helix Association.
· Naveed ul Haq, is a Research Associate in ORIC, University of Management and Technology, Pakistan. Email: email@example.com
Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. (1997). Introduction to special issue on science policy dimensions of the Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations: Beech Tree Publishing.
Lowe, C. U. (1982). The triple helix–NIH, industry, and the academic world. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 55(3-4), 239.
Schumpeter, J. (1942). Creative destruction. Capitalism, socialism and democracy, 825.